بهینه‌سازی سبد پروژه‌های سازمان؛ رویکرد خوشه‌بندی و تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیاره فازی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه

چکیده

انتخاب صحیح پروژه‌ها یکی از مهم‌ترین اقدامات سازمان‌های پروژه‌محور در راستای مدیریت راهبردی است و محدودیت منابع موجب می‌شود سازمان‌ها نتوانند روی تمامی پروژه‌ها سرمایه‌گذاری نمایند. ازاین‌رو، انتخاب مجموعه پروژه‌های موردنظر سازمان یا پورتفولیوی پروژه‌ها به‌نحوی‌که بتواند اهداف و استراتژی‌های سازمان را با در‌نظرگرفتن محدودیت‌های سازمانی برآورده سازد، بسیار حائز اهمیت است. برای تحقق این مهم و به‌منظور تصمیم‌گیری دقیق‌تر، پژوهش حاضر از سه مرحله غربال جهت تشکیل سبد پروژه سازمان استفاده نموده است. در مرحله اول، غربال پروژه‌ها براساس معیارهای انتخاب پروژه و با استفاده از روش‌های تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیاره فازی اولویت‌بندی شده‌اند. ازآنجایی‌که بیش‌ترین هزینه‌های هر سازمان ناشی از ریسک‌ پروژه و اتمام دیرهنگام است و همچنین ممکن است پروژه‌ای از اولویت خوبی برخوردار باشد ولی انجام آن برای سازمان دارای درجه بالایی از ریسک بوده و هزینه‌های زیادی را به همراه داشته باشد، لذا در مرحله دوم غربال، پروژه‌ها براساس ریسک پروژه برمبنای استاندارد PMBOK خوشه‌بندی فازی شدند. براساس نتایج خوشه‌بندی، پروژه‌ها در سه خوشه قرار گرفتند. خوشه اول پروژه‌هایی هستند که از ریسک معقولی برخوردار هستند. پروژه‌های خوشه دوم نیز دارای درجه بالایی از ریسک بوده که در صورت لزوم انجام آن‌ها، نیازمند توجه خاص مدیریت ارشد هستند. در خوشه سوم، پروژه‌های هستند که ریسک‌ بحرانی داشته و در صورت لزوم انجام آن‌ها، به طرح‌ریزی مشخص و برنامه‌ریزی خاص نیاز دارند. در مرحله بعد، خبرگان براساس حوزه فعالیت هر شرکت، پروژه‌ها را به شرکت‌ها تخصیص دادند. در مرحله آخر غربال، پروژه‌ها با استفاده از برنامه‌ریزی آرمانی صفر و یک و با در نظر گرفتن سه محدودیت آرمانی «سود»، «بودجه» و «ریسک» در هر یک از شرکت‌های زیرمجموعه انتخاب شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of Organizational Projects Portfolio - Approach Clustering and multi-criteria decision making

چکیده [English]

Correct selection of projects is one of the most important issues of project-oriented organizations for strategic management and resource constraints make organizations unable to invest on all projects. Therefore, it is very important to select the portfolio of projects to be implemented by the organization or the portfolio of projects that can meet the organization's goals and strategies in terms of organizational constraints. To accomplish this, and in order to make a more precise decision, the present study has used three stages of screening to form the project portfolio. In the first stage, projects has been prioritized based on criteria for project selection and using fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making techniques. Since the highest costs of each organization are due to project risk and late completion and may also be a priority project, but it is for the organization to have a high degree of risk and costs, so in the second stage, the screening Projects was conducted based on project risk based on the PMBOK standard using fuzzy clustering. Based on clustering results, the projects were identified in three clusters. The first cluster is projects that have a reasonable risk; second cluster have a high degree of risk, which requires special attention to senior management when needed, and the third cluster is critical risk projects that, if necessary, requires specific planning. In the next step, the experts assigned projects to companies according to the scope of each company's activities. In the final stage of the screening, using zero and one goal programming and taking into account 3ideal constraints of "profit", "budget" and "risk" projects were selected in each of the subsidiary companies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Project portfolio
  • Project Selection
  • Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making
  • Clustering
  • Zero-one Goal Programming

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