قیمت‏ گذاری و کنترل موجودی خرده‏ فروش‏ های رقیب با کمبود جزئی؛ رویکرد نظریه بازی‏ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار مهندسی صنایع، گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

استراتژی قیمت‏ ‏گذاری و کنترل موجودی در محیط رقابتی، از مهمترین تصمیمات یک واحد خرده‏ فروشی است که بر روی بقا و سوددهی آن به شدت تاثیرگذار است. هنگامی که کالاها فاسدشدنی هستند، اهمیت این تصمیمات دوچندان می ‏شود. در این مقاله، مساله تعیین همزمان قیمت و سیاست ‏موجودی در محیط رقابتی برای کالاهای فاسدشدنی فرموله ‏بندی و حل می ‏شود. بدین منظور تعدادی خرده ‏فروش رقیب در نظر گرفته می ‏شود که یک کالای فاسدشدنی جایگزین را به یک بازار مشترک عرضه می‏ کنند. فرض شده است که کمبود کالا مجاز بوده و به صورت پس افت جزئی است. هر خرده فروش به دنبال تعیین سیاست موجودی و قیمت ‏گذاری خود به منظور بیشینه کردن سود است. در ابتدا توابع سود هر خرده‏ فروش ارائه شده و وجود تعادل نش بین خرده‏ فروش‏ها ثابت می ‏شود. سپس یک روش حل برای تعیین مقادیر تعادلی قیمت و سیاست موجودی خرده‏ فروش‏ها ارائه می ‏شود. در نهایت، یک مثال عددی به منظور شناسایی اثر پارامترهای مختلف بر روی جواب‏های تعادلی ارائه می ‏شود. نتایج عددی نشان می دهد که افزایش شدت رقابت منجر به کاهش مجموع سود خرده ‏فروش‏ها و افزایش مجموع تقاضای برآورد شده توسط آنها می ‏شود. به علاوه، بر خلاف مدل‏های انحصاری، تغییر نرخ فاسد شدن کالا در یک خرده ‏فروش در مدل رقابتی تاثیر زیادی بر روی قیمت خرده‏ فروشی او ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Pricing and inventory decisions of oligopoly retailers with partial backlogging: a game theoretic approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Anwar Mahmoodi
  • Heibatolah Sadeghi
Department of industrial of engineering, Faculty of engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pricing and inventory strategies are two important decisions of a retailer which directly affect her/his profitability. They are even more prominent when the considered product undergoes deterioration. In this paper, the problem of joint pricing and inventory control is investigated in a competitive environment. In particular, we consider a number of competing retailers who sell substitutable deteriorating items to a common market. In addition, shortage is allowed and partially backlogged at the retailers. Each retailer aims to maximize their profit determining their price and inventory policies. At first, the profit function of the retailers is derived. Then, the existence of Nash Equilibrium solution is shown. Next, a solution procedure is developed to obtain the equilibrium quantities of price and replenishment policy. Furthermore, a numerical study is carried out to analyze the effect of the main parameters on the equilibrium solution. Numerical results show that the increase of competition intensity would decrease the summation of the retailers' profits, while it would increase the total satisfied demands. Moreover, in contrast to the monopoly models, changing the deterioration rate at a retailer does not significantly impact his/her selling price.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Inventory Control
  • Pricing
  • Game Theory
  • Nash equilibrium
  • Partial Backlogging
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